Project Creates "Help-the-Helper" Educational Materials on Medicare Choices
Medicare serves a particularly vulnerable subgroup of Americans. Many have physical and/or cognitive disorders; others do not read English well. Thus, more than a few of this program's beneficiaries may have difficulties navigating among its complex offerings and making informed decisions.
From August 1998 to mid-February 2005, staff from two organizations created and operated the Center for Medicare Education, a resource center for professionals and paraprofessionals—of national and local, public and private organizations—who educate consumers about the Medicare program.
The project staff:
- Published 49 issue briefs for professionals and volunteers who educate consumers about the Medicare program. (See the Bibliography for additional information.)
- Partnered with the Medicare Rights Center and the Rutgers Center for State Health Policy to write and publish nine articles on Medicare consumer benefits. The articles appeared in American Journal of Nursing. (The project team worked with an array of partners. Their names in the text are linked to a list in Appendix 1 describing what they do and where they are located.)
- Developed publications and trainings for Medicare education of specific sub-populations within the Medicare population, i.e., people with low literacy, residents in rural communities, younger adults with disabilities and the Hispanic and Vietnamese communities.
- In partnership with the Medicare Rights Center, sponsored 15 regional train-the-trainer workshops around the country to increase the effectiveness of trainers and counselors who educate seniors.
- Partnered with Health Benefits ABCs to conduct the Housing-Based Medicare Education project, which designed and tested different types of educational activities within residential settings for the elderly.
The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (RWJF) supported the project with two grants totaling $5,389,845. When Robyn Stone, the project director, left the International Longevity Center-USA of New York in August 1999, RWJF transferred the grant to her new organization, the Washington-based American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging.
Medicare began as a traditional fee-for-service health insurance program for the elderly and certain disabled individuals who qualified for the program. Over time, it has evolved to allow beneficiaries greater choice in their health benefits. For example, the Medicare+Choice program (now called Medicare Advantage) gave seniors more choices in managed care plans. But with greater choice came a greater potential for confusion.
Medicare serves a particularly vulnerable subgroup of Americans; many have physical and/or cognitive disorders; others do not read English well. And older Americans in general, like everyone else, are struggling to make the right health care choices in the face of a complex health care system that is undergoing rapid and dramatic changes.
Although the 1997 Balanced Budget Act which authorized Medicare+Choice provides for a campaign to educate seniors on their new choices, according to project director Stone, policy-makers and advocacy groups were-and remain-concerned about how well Medicare beneficiaries are able to navigate among the expanded offerings and make informed decisions.
While Medicare itself is not a designated grantmaking priority for RWJF, this project addressed two of its main goals: assuring all Americans have access to quality health care at reasonable cost and improving care and support for people with chronic conditions. Two related RWJF grant projects have addressed these goals through studies of Medicare recipients:
- During 19992002, a team from the firm Mathematica Policy Research assessed the implementation of Medicare+Choice, focusing on how beneficiaries navigated their choices and made informed decisions (see Grant Results).
- During 19992001, researchers at the University of Chicago Center for Health Administration Studies did a literature and data analysis aimed at describing the physical, cognitive and social factors that could impact elderly Americans' ability to act as informed consumers under the Medicare+Choice program (see Grant Results).
Under two grants (ID# 033093 and ID# 037817), RWJF supported the creation and operation of the Center for Medicare Education, a Washington-based resource center for staff of national and local, private and public organizations that provide consumer education about the Medicare program. (RWJF awarded the first grant to the International Longevity Center-USA. The grant was transferred to the American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging after the project director, Robyn Stone, relocated there.)
The center sought to help Medicare beneficiaries make informed health care choices by educating information intermediaries who work with the beneficiaries.
Project staff hired a subcontractor, the National Council on Aging, to compile a list of national organizations providing—or with the potential to provide—Medicare education to information intermediaries and identified barriers to such education. Staff used the results to form useful partnerships with several organizations providing Medicare education. For a brief description of this project's partnering organizations, see Appendix 1.
According to the project co-director, Marisa Scala-Foley, staff accomplished the following:
- Published 49 issue briefs for professionals and volunteers who educate consumers about the Medicare program. Authors included project team members, consultants and invited specialists. See the Bibliography for titles and other citation information. Each of the briefs focused on one of three topic areas:
- Technical assistance with educational techniques.
- Practical information on managing a complex information campaign.
- Current information about health care and Medicare policy issues.
- Aging services and health-care organization.
- Long-term-care organizations.
- State health insurance assistance initiatives.
- Quality improvement organizations.
- Area agencies on aging.
- Senior centers.
- Social service agencies.
- Insurance companies.
- Academic institutions.
- State and national government agencies.
- Through a subcontract with the Center on an Aging Society at Georgetown University, staff explored a range of techniques to reach older adults with low literacy. The project team subsequently produced an issue brief entitled Health Literacy: Responding to the Need, which defines and discusses the issue of health literacy (i.e., how the estimated 90 million American adults who are either functionally or marginally illiterate navigate the health-care system) and describes ways of responding to low literacy in health-care settings. The brief won the 2003 Bambi Holzer Award for Outstanding Achievement in Health Literacy from the Institute for Healthcare Advancement in California.
- Staff also sponsored two conferences (in Washington and San Francisco) attended by approximately 200 individuals. The conferences' purpose was to expand frontline Medicare intermediaries' ability to educate older people with low literacy.
- Staff partnered with the Medicare Rights Center and the Evangelical Lutheran Good Samaritan Society to provide Medicare education to professionals in rural communities who work at continuing care retirement communities, senior housing facilities, nursing homes, etc.
- Using a satellite distance learning system, staff produced two broadcasts. The first, on June 19, 2001, reached 37 Good Samaritan Society sites with about 140 viewers.
- The second broadcast, on August 29, 2001, targeted senior housing managers (number reached is unknown). Both broadcasts sought to educate viewers about Medicare basics, supplemental insurance and Medicare low-income assistance programs.
- Staff partnered with California Health Advocates to develop an issue brief—entitled Special Issues for Younger Medicare Beneficiaries With Disabilities—and a training module, or informational outline, on Medicare issues facing younger people with disabilities.
- Staff collaborated with the National Asian Pacific Center on Aging on a project that produced a Vietnamese language brochure and a poster on Medicare savings programs, which are state programs that pay for a wide range of medical care, services and supplies for qualified Medicare beneficiaries.
- With the Spanish-Speaking Elderly Council—RAICES, the team developed two Spanish-language public services messages about Medicare, one for radio and one for television. The two organizations collaboratively published a report on the challenges involved in developing culturally appropriate education materials on Medicare.
- Based on the experience of the collaborative work of the two organizations, Beth Stevens, Ph.D., of the Princeton, N.J., firm Mathematica Policy Research, wrote, under a subcontract, an issue brief entitled Developing Culturally Appropriate Medicare Education Materials.
- The project team also transformed the materials from the workshops into a training manual—Let's Learn Medicare—consisting of consumer-friendly handouts and materials for overhead projection, customizable PowerPoint Slides on CD-ROM, training modules and a reference guide.
- Staff distributed manuals to interested individuals. They also sent sections of the manual (those pertaining to long-term-care issues—Medicare coverage of skilled nursing facility care, home health care, and hospice care) to the approximately 5,000 members of the American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging—the center's host organization—comprising nonprofit nursing homes, retirement communities, assisted living residences and other senior housing organizations. The manual is available online for a fee. See the Bibliography for details on other teaching modules not in the manual.
- Most staff at elder housing had limited knowledge about Medicare but wanted to know more and believed such knowledge enhances their roles.
- Training should be basic and tailored to the issues staff members are most likely to encounter with residents.
- Best practices in Medicare education.
- Upcoming training opportunities and other events related to Medicare education.
- Names and/or addresses of publications, Web sites and other organizations doing work in the area of Medicare education.
- For one year, the site also featured a "dialogue page" that allowed visitors to post questions and start discussion "threads," though this was little used.
- Put your effort into partnerships with organizations that share your commitment and goals. From the beginning, staff viewed this project as collaboration-building. This allowed the project team to build on the experiences of others. According to project co-director Scala-Foley, the key factors for an effective partnership are a shared commitment and having well-defined goals. (Project Co-Director/Scala-Foley)
- Create Medicare educational materials that are user-friendly. Materials should be written in simple language and at a level that works for the target group. When crafting materials for service professionals, staff focused on easy-to-use tools. In making consumer/beneficiary materials, staff incorporated strategies to reach those with low health literacy or possible cognitive impairment. (Project Co-Director/Scala-Foley)
- Target consumer education primarily at the local level where people get services. According to Scala-Foley, the Center for Medicare Education became a valuable source of information and support for many small, nonprofit community organizations that did not have the resources or expertise to develop materials on their own. (Project Co-Director/Scala-Foley)
- Do not rely on long-term-care providers as Medicare educators. Based on experience with interactive "distance learning" sessions for workers at continuing care retirement communities, senior housing facilities, nursing homes, etc., staff concluded that these service people do not have the time for Medicare education. Project staff found them overwhelmed. These workers were interested in materials (either print or Web-based) they could consult when residents come to them with questions. (Project Co-Director/Scala-Foley)
- Do not rely on lasting foundation support, but seek and cultivate sustaining revenue streams. Because most of the center's audience comprised small, resource-poor nonprofits, staff found that after RWJF support ended they could not fund continued Medicare education solely through the sale of subscriptions to its issue briefs and other products. In a 2005 interview, Scala-Foley noted that most foundations do not seem interested in supporting an information clearinghouse of the type created through this project. (Project Co-Director/Scala-Foley)
AFTER THE GRANT
The Center for Medicare Education closed at the end of the grant in early 2005.
GRANT DETAILS & CONTACT INFORMATION
Information Clearinghouse for Medicare Choices
International Longevity Center-USA Ltd. (New York, NY)
Dates: August 1998 to August 1999
American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging (Washington, DC)
Dates: September 1999 to February 2005
Organizations Partnering with the Center for Medicare Education, 1998-2005
American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging is a Washington-based nonprofit organization serving nonprofit providers of long-term care and senior housing. The association was the grantee organization through which the majority of work for this project was accomplished.
Evangelical Lutheran Good Samaritan Society, headquartered in Sioux Falls, S.D., is a philanthropic organization that provides housing and/or care options for the elderly nationwide. These include nursing bed care, full-time basic care, home health care, assisted living and independent living housing options.
International Longevity Center-USA is a New York-based nonprofit that works to help societies address issues of population aging and longevity. The center served as the grantee organization for one year of this 5½-year project.
National Council on Aging is a national network of organizations and individuals working to improve the health and independence of older persons and to increase their continuing contributions to communities, society and future generations. Its headquarters are located in Washington.
Rutgers Center for State Health Policy, based at Rutgers State University of New Jersey in New Brunswick, works to inform, support and stimulate sound and creative health policy in New Jersey and around the nation.
Pilot Studies Involved in a Housing-Based Portion of this Project, 2000-2003
For conclusions drawn from work at these seven pilot studies, see Appendix 3.
Bexar County and Alamo Area Agencies on Aging
San Antonio, Texas
The project team conducted two focus groups of owners and staff of small assisted living facilities in the San Antonio area to help determine training needs and activities for congregate residential setting for seniors.
Focus group participants agreed that, given the realities of their responsibilities, rather than having extensive material to read, or taking time they did not have in order to attend training seminars, that it would be preferable to have short audiotapes about a variety of Medicare topics that they could listen to on their cars' tape player while running job-related errands.
They also requested simple one-page fact sheets to accompany the audiotapes. The project team produced a two-part audio tape and accompanying fact sheets as a pilot. After receiving favorable feedback on the pilot, they produced a package of six audio taped Medicare seminars written in conjunction with WMKV-FM (a Cincinnati radio station devoted full-time to a senior listening audience). The six titles were:
- "Medicare Basics I and II"
- Medicare Managed Care"
- "Medicare Ambulance Services"
- "Medicare Savings Programs"
- "Medicare and Durable Medical Equipment"
- "Medicaid and Long Term Care"
Georgia Department of Human Resources, Division of Aging
GeorgiaCares/SHIP, Atlanta, Ga.
The project team provided educational sessions on Medicare and other health insurance programs to senior housing staff at five locations:
- Vernon Woods, a private-pay assisted living facility in rural LaGrange, Ga.
- Peachtree Plantation, an assisted living facility in Gainseville, Ga.
- Carrollton Housing Authority in West Georgia.
- Lanier Gardens, a mix of independent living units, assisted lving units and U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)-sponsored units.
- A forum for service coordinators and case managers for the state's Community Care Program sponsored by the Georgia Association of Housing and Services for the Aging.
To guage the effectiveness of the pilot, the project team asked participants to complete a pre-test and post-test on the content taught. The average score on the pre-test was 53 percent; the post-test average was 84 percent—a 58 percent increase.
Senior Citizens Law Office Medicare Education Pilot Project
To help determine training needs and activities, the project team partnered with the Senior Citizens Law Office (a nonprofit organization providing civil legal services to seniors in the Albuquerque area) to conduct a focus group with housing staff from six public housing complexes and 10 HUD-funded housing complexes in Albuquerque.
Based on feedback from the focus group, attorneys from the law office designed and conducted a one-day training activity and videotaped the presentation. Attorneys also prepared written materials that covered the basics of Medicare and Medicare appeals, Medicare savings programs and Medicaid eligibility and services. The project team convened a second focus group of these trainees to assess the value of the one-day training activity. The focus group found:
- All members gained knowledge about Medicare and Medicaid.
- Some members felt the training was too extensive, and said that they did not have the time during their daily work activities to disseminate the information or help residents resolve health benefit problems.
- Others—largely service coordinators and social workers in public housing facilities—were eager for more information about Medicare and Medicaid, calling it extremely valuable to their day-to-day work with public housing residents.
Suburban Area Agency on Aging
Suburban Cook County, Illinois
To help determine training needs and activities, the project team conducted 20 interviews with staff members in a variety of positions in senior housing facilities in suburban Cook County. The interviews yielded the following findings:
- Most said they learned what they know about Medicare through work experience.
- Most said they are comfortable answering questions about Medicare at present, but felt that training would be helpful.
- Most indicated that if they did not know the answer to a question they would try to find it and get back to the resident or family member. Nine of the 20 interviewed were aware of SHIP (Senior Health Information and Assistance Program) and 10 knew the 1-800-Medicare number, yet most said they usually did not refer the question outside their organization.
Based on the findings, the project team conducted training sessions on Medicare at three sites with 17 staff members from nine assisted living and supportive housing facilities in suburban Cook County. They interviewed participants at the end of training and conducted follow-up phone interviews with a sample of participants five months later. Results of this evaluation included the following:
- Nine participants had no formal training about Medicare and eight had some previous training.
- For eight participants, the information presented was "mostly new or info I had forgotten"; for the other participants, it was a mix of "some new/some review."
- All participants rated the training as either "very good" (13) or "good" (4). Some 12 found the information "very useful" and five reported it "useful." All 17 reported that the training would help them better answer client questions or provide them assistance.
- After five months, those interviewed described the training as "very useful" or "useful." All of these interviewees said they would recommend it to others.
United Church Retirement Homes
New Bern, N.C.
United Church Retirement Homes is a church-related nonprofit that operates independent housing, assisted living and skilled nursing facilities throughout North Carolina. After discussions with lower-level housing staff to help determine training needs and activities, the project team designed and conducted a one-day training session on Medicare for approximately 40 staff members. The training session was a response to the housing staff's request, but elicited only limited participation by their management.
Team members concluded that regardless of the interest from line staff, support and involvement on the part of senior management is necessary to ensure that training of this nature is successfully carried out—not only executed on a timely basis but also requiring the full participation of line staff.
Western Reserve Area Agency on Aging
The project team partnered with the Western Reserve Area Agency on Aging to design, assemble and distribute bulletin board "kits" in approximately 10 housing facilities in Cleveland and several neighboring counties. In contrast to most of the overall project's Medicare training activities, this pilot sought to educate facility residents rather than staff.
Housing staff displayed the bulletin boards—which consisted of 12 monthly theme packages pertaining to disease prevention and associated Medicare benefits—in prominent locations at the facilities. The facilities included small assisted living facilities in rural settings in two counties near Cleveland, two public housing facilities in a rural county, a continuing care retirement facility in a fourth county outside of Cleveland and a large senior high-rise in a low-income and primarily Afircan-American community in Cleveland. From their experience, the project team concluded:
- Use of small-scale and "low-tech" but imaginative bulletin boards providing information on national benefits as well as local sources for services was an effective educational strategy.
- While the intended audience for the bulletin boards was residents, housing facility staff absorbed the information as well, which in turn helped them answer many residents' questions. The bulletin boards were also well-received by residents' family members in several facilities.
- Facility staff members, especially management, are crucial to the success of bulletin boards. They provide consent and commit to changing the content each month. They also help ensure the bulletin board is located in the most accessible spot in the building. Managers in several facilities were so motivated that they arranged for outside experts to speak at the facilities about a bulletin board's featured topic.
WMKV-FM Web-based Training Project
WMKV-FM is a radio station devoted full-time to a senior listening audience. It mixes a music format with educational and informative programming for radio listeners in Cincinnati and, via the Internet, throughout the world.
To determine training needs and activities, the project team conducted two focus groups—one with attendees of the Columbus, Ohio-based American Association of Service Coordinators at the annual conference in Las Vegas, and another with service cordinators at an Ohio Service Coordinators meeting near Columbus.
The project team and WMKV-FM subsequently worked with the American Association of Service Coordinators to develop a curriculum of six audio presentations on Medicare topics and a seventh, specific to Ohio, on Medicaid long-term care. The audios consisted of presentations of from 12 to 22 minutes, which were made available through the WMKV-FM Web site.
The arrangement also allowed listeners to download a transcript of the presentation as well as "tip sheets" summarizing the audio content. Some 35 service coordinators volunteered for the Web-based education program, 20 of whom completed all seven audio presentations.
Following the Web-based education program, the project team conducted an evaluation of its effectiveness, primarily via e-mail, with the participating subjects. Findings include:
- For most participants, this was their first Web-based educational experience.
- Although some participants commented that they still preferred in-person training sessions in which they could ask questions, most participants said that the Web-based training was an adequate substitute and did provide a convenient vehicle for training.
- Many commented that they liked the Web-based format because they could complete the sessions on their own time and at their own pace.
- Participants also expressed pleasure at the convenience of having the Web site available to which they could refer when a relevant question arose in their work.
- All participants downloaded the summary tip sheets of written material and found these very helpful. Some participants requested more written materials.
- All of the participants expressed little preference between an "interview" format (that is, questions and answers about specific Medicare topics) and a lecture format.
- Several particpants requested additional sessions on these related topics:
- Medicaid issues.
- Prescription drug assistance programs.
- Social Security benefits.
- Other long-term-care information.
- Subsidized housing programs' regulations.
- Medicare for individuals with disabilities.
Conclusions from the Housing-Based Portion of this Project, 2000-2003
The following conclusions appear in a report, Final Report of the Housing-Based Medicare Education Project, published by researchers at Health Benefits ABCs (see the Bibliography). For a description of the seven pilot sites and project work conducted at each see Appendix 2.
Conclusions and Overall Lessons Learned
- Most housing-based staff members have limited knowledge about Medicare. Many do not have any awareness of the Medicare Savings Programs, including those serving low-income Medicare beneficiaries who are likely to be eligible for them.
- Most housing-based staff members want to know more about Medicare and believe that such knowledge enhances their roles. That is, they believe this knowledge provides them a better understanding of what residents face in Medicare, and it enables them to provide assistance even if directing residents (and family) to other sources like the nationwide Senior Health Information and Assistance Program, or SHIP. It may be unrealistic, however, to expect staff to go into the details of Medicare and do individual advocacy for tenants given the realities of their jobs (small staff, present job demands).
- While housing-based personnel want to learn more about Medicare, training and education should be relatively basic and tailored to the extent possible to issues they are most likely to encounter. Likely encounters may often be in the context of discussion with residents about such topics as durable medical equipment, Medicare basics and Medicare savings programs and resources (for example, SHIP and Senior Medicare Patrols).
- Those who know something about Medicare often have that knowledge limited to a specific aspect of Medicare with which they work. They typically do not have the framework for understanding the entire program or answering more complex questions. In many cases, housing personnel may believe they have an adequate knowledge base and do not realize what they do not know, at least until exposed to Medicare training or other educational opportunities.
- Medicare education and training can be done effectively through a full range of technologies; however, it is crucial to know your audience. Keeping it simple may be best. Excellent examples in these pilot studies were the bulletin board project at the Western Reserve Area Agency on Aging and the audiotapes developed for small assisted living/board and care providers.
- Audio content via the Internet has promise when done in a targeted way. In the pilot, researchers found they had to ensure that the audience (participating service coordinators) could easily access and use the Web site with the computer equipment they had access to at work or else owned and used at home.
- Face-to-face on-site training with ample opportunity for questions remains best. In this project's Web-based training study, participants expressed a preference for face-to-face training because it allowed them to receive immediate answers to their questions. The preference was not strong, however. Staff evaluations of other training activities that did not involve face-to-face interactions—for example, the use of bulletin boards in senior living facilities—showed these to be highly effective training modes too.
- Small amounts of money—minigrants—are not a barrier to enlisting partners in a worthwhile endeavor provided the objectives are clear and limited and the scope is realistic. Organizations are willing to do a great deal of work and be very creative in the effort, particularly if senior management is interested in the project.
- Area Agencies on Aging were an important partner of the Housing-Based Medicare Education Project.
- Both large and small Area Agencies on Aging are willing partners for $5,000 minigrants.
- Area Agencies on Aging showed tremendous creativity especially in light of (perhaps because of) the small level of funding in these pilots.
- Area Agencies on Aging saw the pilots as a means to reaching constituencies with which they had little previous contact or collaboration. For example, the Suburban Area Agency on Aging pilot cited new collaboration with assisted living providers; the Bexar County (Texas) pilot formed a relationship with small board and care/assisted living providers; and the Alamo (Texas) pilot worked with rural public housing authorities.
(Current as of date of this report; as provided by grantee organization; not verified by RWJF; items not available from RWJF.)
Bader E, Scala-Foley MA, Weiss J, Caruso JT and Reinhard SC. "Medicare Consumer Rights: Appealing a Denial of Coverage: The Majority of Medicare Appeals are Successful." American Journal of Nursing, 104(3): 7072, 2004. Abstract available online.
Caruso JT, Scala-Foley MA, Archer D and Reinhard SC. "A Medicare House Call: Taking Advantage of Little-Known Home Health Care Benefits." American Journal of Nursing, 104(7): 7172, 2004.
Gottlich V. "Medicare and Employer-sponsored Health Insurance." CSA Journal, 10: 1723, 2001.
Holt B. "Creating Senior-Friendly Web Sites." CSA Journal, 9: 2632, 2000.
Reinhard SC, Scala-Foley MA, Caruso JT and Archer D. "Medicare Savings Programs: Helping Those on Medicare Pay for Health Care." American Journal of Nursing, 104(6): 6264, 2004.
Scala-Foley MA, Caruso JT, Archer D and Reinhard SC. "Medicare's Hospice Benefits: When Cure is No Longer the Goal, Medicare Will Cover Palliative Care." American Journal of Nursing, 104(9): 6667, 2004.
Scala-Foley MA, Caruso JT, Archer D and Reinhard SC. "Medicare's Preventive Services: Medicare Offers Beneficiaries an Ounce of Prevention." American Journal of Nursing, 104(4): 7375, 2004.
Scala-Foley MA, Caruso JT, Bader E and Reinhard SC. "Medicare's Hidden Price Tag: Patients Should Know about Supplemental Insurance and the Specifics of Coverage." American Journal of Nursing, 104(5): 3235, 2004.
Scala-Foley MA, Caruso JT, Ramos R and Reinhard SC. "Medicare Eligibility, Enrollment, and Coverage: Understanding the Basics of a Complicated System." American Journal of Nursing, 104(2): 8183, 2004.
Scala-Foley MA, Caruso JT, Ramos R, and Reinhard SC. "The Top 10 Myths About Medicare: Information Nurses Need to Answer Patients' Questions." American Journal of Nursing, 104(1): 3437, 2004.
Weiss J, Caruso JT, Scala-Foley MA, Archer D and Reinhard SC. "Medicare Skilled Nursing Facility Benefits: They're Limited but can be Important to Those Who Qualify." American Journal of Nursing, 104(8): 6567, 2004.
Andersen LS. Making a Decision About Part D-Some Things to Consider. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2005.
Andersen S, Benson WF and Dahl N. Final Report of the Housing-Based Medicare Education Project. Tacoma Park, Md.: Health Benefits ABCs, 2004.
Archer D and Ramos R. Let's Learn Medicare! (includes the 13 training modules). New York: Medicare Rights Center, 2000. Available online.
California Health Advocates. Special Issues for Younger Medicare Beneficiaries with Disabilities. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Strong DA, Esposito D and Lavin B. Pass It On—Educating Housing Staff to Inform Residents on Medicare. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Andersen L. Coordination of Benefits. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Andersen LS. Medicare Ambulance Services. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Andersen LS. Prescription Drug Benefits Under Part D of the Medicare Modernization Act—The Genie's Out of the Bottle. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2005.
Benson WF and Andersen S. Medicare Education in Housing Facilities. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Bothner V. Marketing Your Programs. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Bryant N. Local Medical Review Policies. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Bryant N. Medicare Prescription Drug Discount Cards. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Bryant N and Scala M. Medicare Fraud and Abuse. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Burns B. Special Issues for Younger Medicare Beneficiaries With Disabilities. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Burns B. Understanding Long-Term Care Insurance. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Chiplin A. Due Process in Medicare Appeals: A Primer. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Cloud D. Mastering the Key Elements of Working With the Media. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2005.
Coviello A. Medicare and Durable Medical Equipment. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Coviello A and Glaun K. Medicare Mental Health Coverage. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Fried L. Medicare for People With Alzheimer's Disease. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Gottlich V. Medicare and Employer-Sponsored Health Insurance. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000.
Gottlich V. The Medicare Appeals Process. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Gottlich V. Medicare Outpatient Prospective Payment System. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Greenwood R. The PACE Model. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Hardt J. Finding Reliable Health-care Information on the Internet. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Holt B. Creating Senior-Friendly Web Sites. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000.
Kay S. Building Coalitions. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Kiefer K. Considering Health Literacy. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000..
Kiefer K. Health Literacy: Responding to the Need for Help. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Kunkel S. Assessing Community Needs. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
The Medicare Hospice Benefit. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Osborne H. Communicating With Clients in Person and Over the Phone. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Nemore P. Dual Eligibles. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Nemore P. Medicare Savings Programs: Helping Your Clients Get and Use the Benefits. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2004.
Petty D. Explaining Medicare to Caregivers. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Politi E. Medicare and TRICARE. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Rouillard S, Sheehan-Watanabe JB. Setting Up a Hotline. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Rudin D. The Cost of Volunteer Programs. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000.
Rudin D. Developing A Successful Mass Media Campaign. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000.
Rudin D. Managing Volunteers. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000.
Rudin D. Translating Materials for Non-English Speaking Audiences. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000.
Rudin D. Writing Easy to Read Materials. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000.
Scala M. Developing Rural Information and Assistance Programs. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Scala M. Getting Funding from Foundations. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2000.
Scala M. Medicare Preventive Services. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Scala M. The Role of the PROs. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Stein J. Medicare and Long-Term Care. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Stein N. Medicare Supplemental Insurance (Medigap). Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Stein N. Prescription Drug Coverage for People with Medicare. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Stevens B. How Seniors Learn. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2003.
Stevens B, Yee D and Ortiz JO. Developing Culturally Appropriate Medicare Education Services. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Summer L. Increasing Enrollment for the Medicare Savings Programs. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2001.
Weaver P. Involving Consumers on Boards. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 2002.
Audio-Visuals and Computer Software
Medicare Basics, a 90-minute video of the satellite program, aired on selected sites of Good Samaritan Society's Distance Learning Network. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, August 29, 2001.
"Medicare Information Project: A Survey of Local Organizations." National Council on Aging, fielded July 2000.
World Wide Web Sites
www.Medicareed.org (no longer available). Provided examples of tools and practices from around the country for educating Medicare beneficiaries, listings of publications, Web sites, upcoming events including training sessions, conferences and other educational opportunities. Washington: Center for Medicare Education, 1999.
Report prepared by: Robert Crum
Reviewed by: James Wood
Reviewed by: Molly McKaughan
Program Officer: David C. Colby